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vaginal atrophy symptoms

Health Before Taboos: Your Guide To Vaginal Atrophy

In a world that is gradually breaking through long-held taboos that had surrounded women’s health for centuries, it is very important to address topics that have been covered in silence. 

Vaginal atrophy, a topic that has been whispered about or overlooked, is a reality that deserves not just acknowledgment but a comprehensive understanding to secure women’s health.

Join us on this journey through the details and complexities of this condition, where women’s health takes precedence over taboos.

What is Vaginal Atrophy?

Vaginal atrophy, scientifically known as Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (GSM), is a condition that affects many women but is frequently misunderstood. 

Simply put, it’s the thinning, drying, and inflammation of the vaginal walls due to a decrease in estrogen. As estrogen levels decline, typically during menopause, the delicate balance of the vaginal tissues is disrupted, leading to a range of uncomfortable vaginal atrophy symptoms.

How Common is Vaginal Atrophy (GSM)?

Contrary to misconceptions, vaginal atrophy is not an uncommon condition. As women age, the likelihood of experiencing GSM increases. In fact, studies show that up to 50% of postmenopausal women may be affected. However, the underreporting of vaginal atrophy symptoms and societal hesitancy to discuss these issues often contributes to an underestimation of its prevalence.

Vaginal Atrophy Symptoms

Being able to recognize this condition involves understanding the vaginal atrophy  symptoms, which can manifest in various ways. 

Common indications include:

  • Vaginal Dryness:
    Experience persistent dryness, a lack of moisture, and discomfort in the vaginal area, impacting daily activities.
  • Itching and Irritation:
    Feel persistent itching and irritation, signs of disrupted vaginal health that can affect your overall well-being.
  • Burning Sensation:
    Encounter a burning sensation, particularly during activities like urination, indicating increased sensitivity in the vaginal tissues.
  • Pain or Discomfort During Intercourse:
    Notice pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse due to thin vaginal walls and reduced lubrication.
  • Urinary Symptoms:
    Experience increased frequency, urgency, or urinary incontinence, as vaginal atrophy affects the urinary tract.
  • Changes in Vaginal pH:
    Detects alterations in the natural pH balance, potentially leading to recurrent infections in the urinary and vaginal areas.
  • Light Vaginal Bleeding:
    Witness light bleeding, especially after intercourse, a result of fragile tissues and heightened susceptibility to minor trauma.

Vaginal Atrophy Causes

Vaginal atrophy is intimately tied to hormonal changes, and primarily the decline in estrogen. Listed and explained below are the vaginal atrophy causes – the key factors that contribute to the development of this condition:

  • Menopause and Hormonal Changes:

Vaginal atrophy is primarily triggered by menopause. As women enter this phase, declining estrogen levels upset the delicate balance that maintains vaginal tissue health, causing drying and inflammation; and resulting in thin vaginal walls.

  • Cancer Treatments:

Radiation therapy and chemotherapy, common cancer treatments, can induce a premature menopausal state. This accelerates estrogen decline, becoming one of the leading vaginal atrophy causes.

  • Hormonal Medications:

Prolonged use of hormonal medications, including certain birth control methods, can disrupt estrogen levels. This hormonal imbalance over time impacts vaginal tissue health, leading to the development of atrophy.

  • Immune Disorders:

Autoimmune disorders, like Sjögren’s syndrome and lupus, mistakenly target vaginal tissues. This contributes to the characteristic thinning and inflammation seen in vaginal atrophy.

  • Oophorectomy (Ovary Removal):

Surgical removal of ovaries, whether medically necessary or preventive, induces an abrupt hormonal decline, similar to menopause.

  • Anti-Estrogen Medications:

Medications reducing estrogen effects, often prescribed for breast cancer, can lower estrogen levels, which leads to vaginal atrophy.

Risk Factors for Vaginal Atrophy

Several factors can increase the risk of developing vaginal atrophy. And recognizing its risk factors is crucial for proactive women’s health

Common risk factors include:

  • Advancing Age:

The risk increases as women approach and enter menopause due to the natural decline in estrogen.

  • Smoking:

Smoking is linked to an earlier onset of menopause, accelerating hormonal changes that impact vaginal health.

  • Cancer Treatments:

Radiation or chemotherapy can induce premature menopause, intensifying hormonal changes and the risk of vaginal atrophy.

  • Genetic Predisposition:

A family history of early menopause or reproductive issues may increase susceptibility.

  • Hormonal Medications:

Prolonged use of certain hormonal medications, including birth control, can impact estrogen levels.

  • Oophorectomy (Ovary Removal):

Surgical removal of the ovaries induces hormonal decline, similar to menopause, increasing risk.

  • Chronic Stress:

Elevated stress levels can affect hormonal balance, potentially impacting vaginal health.

How is Vaginal Atrophy (GSM) Diagnosed?

Accurate diagnosis and comprehensive testing are fundamental steps in addressing and managing vaginal atrophy – the thorough approach involved in diagnosing vaginal atrophy includes:

  • Medical History Assessment:

A detailed review of reproductive history, menopausal status, and relevant treatments establishes a comprehensive health profile.

  • Pelvic Examination:

Healthcare professionals visually assess the vaginal tissues, examining the dryness, overall condition, and thin vaginal walls.

  • Symptom Evaluation:

The nature and severity of vaginal atrophy symptoms, including dryness, itching, pain during intercourse, and urinary issues, guide the diagnosis.

  • Vaginal pH Testing:

Measurement of vaginal pH helps assess acidity or alkalinity, with elevated levels indicating potential Vaginal Atrophy.

  • Biopsy (if necessary):

A biopsy may be recommended in complex cases to confirm the diagnosis, involving a microscopic examination of a small tissue sample.

  • Laboratory Tests:

Blood tests assess hormone levels and rule out other vaginal atrophy causes, providing valuable information for diagnosis and treatment planning.

How to Treat Vaginal Atrophy?

Addressing Vaginal Atrophy (GSM) involves a tailored approach:

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT):

Systemic or localized estrogen replenishment counteracts thinning and dryness. Options include pills, patches, creams, vaginal rings, or tablets.

  • Local Estrogen Therapy:

Vaginal creams, tablets, or rings provide targeted estrogen application, effectively relieving symptoms with minimal systemic absorption.

  • Non-Hormonal Treatments:

Moisturizers and lubricants alleviate dryness. Non-hormonal options focus on improving vaginal moisture and reducing irritation.

  • Lifestyle Modifications:

Hydration, a balanced diet, and regular exercise complement medical treatments for overall vaginal health.

  • Regular Sexual Activity:

Promotes blood flow, maintaining vaginal elasticity. Open communication with a partner ensures comfort.

  • Pelvic Floor Exercises (Kegels):

Strengthening pelvic muscles improves tone and supports vaginal health.

  • Vaginal Dilators:

Gradual use helps maintain elasticity and reduces discomfort during intercourse.

  • Counseling and Support:

Seeking professional guidance or joining support groups addresses emotional aspects of Vaginal Atrophy.

Vaginal Atrophy Prevention

Preventing Vaginal Atrophy (GSM) involves the proactive measures listed below:

  • Healthy Lifestyle
  • Regular Sexual Activity
  • Pelvic Floor Exercises (Kegels)
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
  • Vaginal Moisturizers/Lubricants
  • Quit Smoking
  • Regular Check-ups

When to See a Doctor?

Knowing when to seek medical attention is crucial. If you experience vaginal atrophy symptoms such as persistent vaginal discomfort, pain during intercourse, or urinary issues, it’s time to consult a healthcare professional

Early intervention not only improves the effectiveness of treatment but also enhances overall well-being.


Understanding and addressing vaginal atrophy is a vital step toward prioritizing women’s health. 

At Manhattan Medical Arts, we are committed to providing compassionate and comprehensive care for women at every stage of life. Don’t let taboos hinder your well-being; embrace knowledge, seek support, and empower yourself to prioritize your health above all else.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can vaginal atrophy be reversed?

Vaginal atrophy can be effectively managed, and symptoms alleviated with appropriate treatment. While complete reversal may not always be possible, early intervention enhances overall vaginal health.

What does vaginal atrophy feel like?

Vaginal atrophy symptoms include dryness, itching, burning, pain during intercourse, and urinary discomfort. These sensations can impact daily life and intimate relationships.

How long does vaginal atrophy last?

The duration varies for all women. Vaginal atrophy symptoms may persist, improve, or recur over time. Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment can significantly enhance comfort and quality of life.

Can vaginal atrophy cause bleeding?

Yes, vaginal atrophy bleeding is a real thing, particularly after intercourse. Fragile vaginal tissues are more prone to minor trauma, resulting in occasional bleeding.

– Disclaimer –
This blog is for informational & educational purposes only, and does not intend to substitute any professional medical advice or consultation. For any health related concerns, please consult with your physician, or call 911.

Medically Reviewed

Last reviewed by Dr. Syra Hanif, M.D. on 11/20/2023

Learn more about our editorial process.

  • About The Author

    Dr. Syra Hanif M.D.

    Board Certified Primary Care Physician

Dr. Syra Hanif is a board-certified Primary Care Physician (PCP) dedicated to providing compassionate, patient-centered healthcare.

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