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Depression is a prevalent illness, with over 264 million individuals suffering from it around the world. It can progress to a significant health condition especially if it lasts for a long time. Depression can make an individual suffer severely and cause them to perform poorly at work, school, and in their personal lives. In its most extreme form, it has the potential to lead to suicide. Suicide claims the lives of around 800,000 individuals each year and is the second-highest cause of mortality in the United States among people aged 15 to 29.

– Major Depressive Disorder (MDD):

  • Definition: MDD is persistent despair, hopelessness, and a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities.


  • Symptoms: Symptoms include fatigue, hunger fluctuations, sleep difficulties, and difficulty concentrating. MDD frequently interferes with daily functioning.


  • Etiology: MDD can be caused by genetic, environmental, and neurological causes.


  • Treatment: Psychotherapy, medication (antidepressants), and lifestyle changes are common treatments. Specialized mental health professionals are accessible in New York for therapy and assistance.

– Dysthymia, Persistent Depressive Disorder:

  • Definition: Dysthymia is a chronic form of depression characterized by milder but persistent symptoms that last at least two years.


  • Symptoms: Low self-esteem, poor productivity, and feelings of hopelessness, similar to MDD.


  • Etiology: Genetic factors, early life experiences, and neurotransmitter abnormalities are all possible causes.


  • Treatment: Therapy, medicine, and support are all necessary. Access to mental health professionals in New York can help manage persistent depressive illnesses.

Bipolar Disorder:

  • Definition: Bipolar disorder is characterized by significant mood fluctuations, with periods of manic and depression episodes.


  • Symptoms: Manic periods are characterized by solid energy, impulsivity, and euphoria, whereas depressive episodes are similar to MDD.


  • Etiology: Genetic predisposition and neurochemical abnormalities are essential considerations.


  • Treatment: Common treatments include mood stabilizers, counseling, and lifestyle modification. New York City provides various specialized services to meet the challenges of bipolar disorder.

– Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD):

  • Definition: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a kind of depression that occurs seasonally, usually during the winter months when there is less natural sunlight.


  • Symptoms: Symptoms are comparable to MDD. However, they are seasonal.


  • Etiology: Lack of sunlight impacts the body’s circadian cycles and serotonin levels.


  • Treatment: Light therapy, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes can help improve SAD symptoms, and light therapy and other therapies are available at specialized facilities in New York.

– Psychotic Depression:

  • Definition: Psychotic depression is characterized by severe depressed symptoms along with psychotic traits such as hallucinations or delusions.


  • Symptoms: In addition to the standard symptoms of MDD, those suffering from psychotic depression have problems with reality perception.


  • Etiology: Biological and genetic variables may affect developing this illness.


  • Treatment: Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, and psychotherapy. Mental health services in New York tend to severe and complex illnesses such as psychotic depression.

Postpartum Depression:

  • Definition: Postpartum depression occurs after childbirth in mothers, with symptoms similar to MDD.


  • Symptoms: Feelings of inadequacy, depression, and difficulties bonding with the newborn.


  • Etiology: Hormonal changes, hereditary factors, and life stressors can all play a role.


  • Treatment: New York offers psychotherapy, support groups, and medication to help moms.

– Situational Depression:

  • Definition: Situational depression is a short-term reaction to a traumatic or stressful experience.


  • Symptoms: Symptoms frequently resemble MDD but are linked to the triggering event.


  • Etiology: The condition is caused by the situation.


  • Treatment: Psychotherapy and coping skills are critical. The mental health services in New York can assist individuals in navigating these difficult situations.

– Atypical Depression:

  • Definition: Atypical depression is characterized by mood reactivity, which means that a person’s mood can improve in reaction to happy occurrences.


  • Symptoms: Increased appetite, weight gain, and excessive sleep. Individuals may also be susceptible to rejection sensitivity.


  • Etiology: Although the causes are unknown, biological factors have a role.


  • Treatment: Atypical depression is best managed by psychotherapy, medication, and lifestyle changes.

– Cyclothymic Disorder:

  • Definition: Cyclothymic disorder is a lesser form of bipolar disorder characterized by mood swings that are not as severe as complete manic or depressed episodes.


  • Symptoms: Elevated mood and depressed symptoms, however not as severe as in MDD or bipolar disorder.


  • Etiology: Genetic and environmental variables both play a role.


  • Treatment: Psychotherapy, mood stabilizers, and lifestyle modification are advised, and specialized services are accessible in New York.

In New York, a wide selection of mental health specialists and treatment centers cater to the specific needs of people suffering from depression. The city provides a support network, ensuring that persons suffering from depression receive adequate care and therapy.


Many possible causes exist for depression. It can be caused by a number of different factors and can be initiated by a variety of circumstances.

Depression is sometimes caused by an extremely difficult event, such as the death of a loved one, a divorce, sickness, or financial concerns. The likelihood of developing this condition increases in people who have faced setbacks in their lives (like job loss, grief, or psychological trauma).

One of the most common causes of depression is a combination of factors – for instance, after recovering from an illness, you may experience another traumatic incident, such as the death of a loved one, which makes you depressed.

Physical health is considered to be one of the causes. This mental condition and physical health are inextricably linked. Cardiovascular disease, for example, can result in depression and vice versa.

There is a complex interplay of social, psychological, and biological factors causing depression. Below are the risk factors for depression:

  • Family history
  • Genetic makeup
  • Certain medications
  • Stress or trauma
  • Substance misuse


Determining whether a person’s persistent, unshakeable negative feelings are the result of depression is the very first move toward healing and rehabilitation for someone who is suffering from it. Check out the below are severe depression symptoms to see if it’s time to get professional treatment from a mental health specialist.

  • Persistent sad or nervous mood
  • Pessimism or sense of hopelessness
  • Irritability, frustration, or restlessness
  • Guilt, a sense of worthlessness, or a sense of helplessness
  • Loss of pleasure or interest in different activities or hobbies
  • Reduced energy, tiredness, or a sense of being “slowed down”
  • Concentration, decision-making, or memory difficulties
  • Sleep disturbances or oversleeping
  • Appetite shifts
  • Suicide attempts or thoughts of death

Although this condition can affect anyone, women are twice as likely as men to suffer from it. Signs of depression in women include:

  • Losing appetite
  • Feeling guilty, anxious, or irritable
  • Feel like crying without any reason
  • Having mood swings

Always remember that we all experience similar depression symptoms from time to time and that they do not necessarily indicate that you are depressed or suffering from a mental illness. In the same way, not everyone who is depressed will display all of the symptoms listed above.


Depression diagnosis is based on physical examination and some blood tests that are performed by the doctor to rule out other conditions like an underactive thyroid.

The diagnosis mainly includes the physician asking about general health and state of mind. Doctors look for the severe signs and symptoms for diagnosing it.

Depression tests are also performed for the diagnosis. The test is mainly done by administering questionnaires containing the related questions regarding the signs and symptoms for determining the presence of illness.

The “Hamilton Depression Rating Scale” is a test, which is used by doctors. It has 21 questions and their scores are indicative of the severity of the illness.


When it comes to managing depressive symptoms, psychotherapy may be beneficial.

Support can come in many forms, ranging from brainstorming practical solutions to educating members of one’s own family.

The types of psychotherapy that include one-on-one counseling as well as cognitive behavioral therapy are a few examples falling in the category of talking therapy.

The use of antidepressants as prescribed by the physician.

Antidepressants can be beneficial for people suffering from mild to moderate depression.

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

These medicines should only be taken as prescribed by a physician. The effects of some medications are delayed for an extended period of time. If a person stops taking the medication, they may miss out on some of the drug’s potential benefits.

When their symptoms improve, some patients decide to stop taking their medication, but this may result in a recurrence of their condition.

Inform your doctor of any questions or concerns you have about antidepressants, as well as any plans you have to stop taking them altogether.

Natural therapies, such as herbal medicines, are used by some people to cure mild-to-moderate depression.

Before utilizing any form of herbal cure or supplement to treat this illness, it is critical to consult with a doctor. Some herbs can make symptoms worse by interfering with the action of medications.

When To See A Doctor

When you feel persistently sad without any reason or have some signs of depression as mentioned above, immediately consult your primary care physician

It can be a short-term problem or a long-term issue. Treatment does not always result in complete recovery from the illness. However, it can make symptoms manageable. Finding the correct combination of drugs and therapy to treat depression symptoms is crucial.


This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered a substitute for professional medical advice. If you have concerns about depression or any other medical condition, please see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment suggestions.