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Coughing is a deliberate or involuntary action that removes foreign particles, pathogens, irritants, fluids, and mucus from the throat and respiratory system, as well as ejecting air from the lungs quickly. Coughing may be brought on by a number of reasons, including stress, sickness, or infection like Covid infection that leads to covid cough. Croup cough results due to an accumulation of fluid around the voice box, windpipe, and bronchial tubes. When a person has a cold or the flu, their cough is known as tussis, which is a bacterial infection.

Coughing may occur either spontaneously or as a reflex response. While coughing may indicate a severe disease, it is frequently a symptom that resolves on its own, requiring no medical attention.

Acute cough is defined as one that lasts less than three weeks and is accompanied by a fever. Within two weeks, the overwhelming majority of coughing fits will stop or substantially improve. Subacute cough is a cough that lasts three to eight weeks and recovers at the end of that time. A persistent cough that lasts more than eight weeks and does not go away on its own is known as chronic cough.

A dry cough is distinguished from others by the absence of phlegm or mucus production. Covid 19 infection can also cause dry covid cough. People often cough up dust, which is not a reason for worry.

Whooping cough, pertussis, is a highly infectious respiratory disease that may affect both children and adults. The bacteria that causes pertussis is known as Bordetella pertussis. Further symptoms include uncontrollable, intense coughing that may make breathing difficult in certain cases.


Cough is expected because a variety of circumstances can cause it. It is a frequent symptom that can be related to a variety of health disorders, including respiratory infections (such as the common cold, flu, and bronchitis), allergies, asthma, chronic illnesses (such as COPD), environmental irritants (such as smoking and pollution), and even gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The prevalence varies according to age, lifestyle, and geographic area.


Some of the causes of cough are listed below:

Virus: The most frequent causes of cough in children and adults are colds and the flu. Coughs aid in the removal of germy mucus from your lungs, which may be an unpleasant sensation. The vast majority of them will vanish in a couple of days. Some “dry” coughs, on the other hand, may persist for weeks or even months following a cold.

Allergy or Asthma: An allergy cough is caused by your immune system’s reaction to an allergen rather than by a disease such as the flu or a cold itself. Asthma can also lead to excessive coughing. Another sign of asthmatic bronchitis is coughing. If you have wheezing or chest tightness in addition to difficulty breathing, you are more likely to have an asthma cough.

Irritants: Even if you are not hypersensitive to anything, environmental factors such as cigarette smoke, chilly air, or strong odors may cause a coughing episode in some people.

Diseases: Different conditions like emphysema, lung inflammation, chronic bronchitis, sleep apnea and COPD are also the factors linked with coughing episodes. As a result of these diseases, the tubes in your airway and the small sacs (alveoli) that transport oxygen into your circulation and eliminate carbon dioxide deteriorate. Cigarette smoking is the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients.

Acid reflux: When you have heartburn, acid from your stomach may back up into your throat. This is a condition that occurs more often at night than during the day. It has the ability to irritate the windpipe, vocal chords, and throat, resulting in coughing fits.

Many people experience cough after eating anything. It may happen after every meal or just on rare occasions. It is not spreadable. A number of factors, including acid reflux, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), asthma and food allergies may all play a part in the development of this illness.

Causes of baby cough include fever, infection, cold, sore throat and flu.


Coughing is a common symptom of various underlying conditions and can manifest in different ways, including:

  1. Dry Cough
  2. Productive Cough
  3. Wheezing:
  4. Shortness of Breath
  5. Chest Pain
  6. Sore Throat


Diagnosing the underlying cause of a cough typically involves a combination of the following:

  1. Medical History: Talking about your medical history, including the duration and nature of your cough and any other symptoms or pertinent information.
  2. Physical Examination: A healthcare provider may conduct a physical examination to assess your overall health and identify any physical signs of illness.
  3. Chest X-ray: An X-ray can be performed to look for abnormalities in the chest and lung area.
  4. Pulmonary Function Tests: These tests assess lung function and can help detect illnesses such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  5. Blood tests: Blood tests can assist in revealing infection or inflammatory markers, which can shed light on the source of the cough.
  6. Sputum Culture: If the cough is productive, a sample of mucus may be cultured to identify any bacteria or pathogens.


The cough treatment depends on the underlying cause. Common approaches include:

  1. Treating the Underlying Condition: Treating the underlying condition, such as a respiratory infection, with antibiotics or antiviral medicines.
  2. Cough Suppressants: Cough suppressants, whether over-the-counter or prescribed, can assist in relieving cough symptoms.
  3. Expectorants: These drugs can assist in loosening mucus and making it more straightforward to eliminate.
  4. Inhalers: Inhalers may be prescribed to treat coughing and improve breathing in asthma-related illnesses.
  5. Lifestyle Changes: Avoiding smoking, allergies, or irritants, as well as staying hydrated and using humidifiers, can all help with cough management.
  6. Home Remedies: Home remedies such as honey and warm tea might help relieve mild coughs.

It is critical to consult a healthcare provider to diagnose cough and develop an appropriate treatment plan specific to the individual’s needs.

When To See A Doctor

The overwhelming majority of prolonged coughs are harmless. You, on the other hand, are unable to discover the root reasons on your own. If your cough does not improve after a week, see your doctor for additional therapy.

Coughing that disrupts your daily activities or ability to work, as well as any of the other symptoms listed below, should be reported to your doctor as soon as possible:

  • Breathing difficulty
  • Chest pain
  • Chronic heartburn
  • Coughing up a lot of blood and having
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Fever
  • Excessive sweating throughout the night

You should see a doctor if you experience coughing up blood or have a cough that sounds like it is “barking.” In addition, if your cough continues after a few weeks, you should visit a doctor since it may indicate a more serious issue.


This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered a substitute for professional medical advice. If you have concerns about cough or any other medical condition, please see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment suggestions.