A brain lesion is a kind of damage that may occur anywhere in the brain. Lesions may be caused by illness, trauma, or a congenital abnormality. Lesions in a particular region of the brain may develop on occasion. In certain instances, lesions may be visible across a wide area of brain tissue, known as a diffuse lesion. It is possible that brain lesions do not produce any symptoms at first. The symptoms become more apparent and prominent as the lesions grow and worsen.
The symptoms of a brain lesion differ based on the kind of lesion, its severity, and its location in the brain. Each person is unique; consequently, their symptoms will vary as well. Many lesions may be discovered in regions of the brain that do not cause symptoms.
There are many potential causes of brain lesions. People who have one or more of the following risk factors for developing brain lesions are at a higher risk:
- A family history of brain lesions exists. If another family member has had the disease, the likelihood of contracting it rises.
- Stroke, hypertension, and aneurysms of the brain arteries are all preventable vascular diseases that cause brain lesions.
- Internal hemorrhage and brain trauma are also among brain lesion causes.
- Meningitis and encephalitis due to chemical exposure may cause brain lesions.
- Tumors that form in the brain or spread to the brain through blood or lymphatic vessels
- Placental plaques or aberrant protein accumulation in brain tissues or blood vessels, blocking blood flow to the brain.
- Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative illness that impairs a person’s memory, thinking, and behavior. Furthermore, due to damaged tissue, multiple sclerosis may result in the formation of plaques in the brain leading to MS brain lesion development.
- Radiation poisoning or chemical exposure raises the chance of developing brain lesions.
- Toxins, such as those produced by excessive alcohol or cigarette smoke, exist in the body leading to lesion development.
You can suffer certain brain lesion symptoms depending on the type, location, and intensity of the brain lesion. When you have brain lesions, headaches are typically the first symptoms you experience. A headache could appear out of nowhere and get worse over time.
- A headache is the initial sign of a traumatic brain injury. The pain gets more intense and lasts for a longer length of time as time passes. In most cases, using over-the-counter medications to alleviate pain is ineffective.
- The movement will be hampered if the injury occurs in the brain region responsible for motor abilities.
- Brainstem lesions may cause slurred speech, blurred vision, and hearing loss.
- Convulsions are characterized by uncontrolled movements of different bodily organs, which may result in death in extreme instances.
Tumors are collections of cells that develop atypically from healthy tissue. Brain tumors can be either malignant or benign (non-cancerous). They could begin in the brain or metastatic spread from other body regions. They might develop quickly, or they might be steady.
Following a neurological exam, a healthcare provider may suspect a lesion. During this exam, a healthcare expert assesses muscle strength in your limbs, analyzes your reflexes, and determines whether your senses are functioning properly.
Imaging scans are used to discover a brain lesion after a neurologic assessment. The following are some of the most prevalent imaging tools that can diagnose brain lesion various types:
- CT scan stands for computed tomography.
- Scanners for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
- Scanners for positron emission tomography (PET).
Treatment for brain lesions is based on the lesions’ nature, location, and underlying cause. A comprehensive physical evaluation is necessary to create a patient-specific treatment strategy.
The type of lesions present and the severity of the symptoms will determine the best course of treatment. Treatment for a disease’s underlying cause frequently involves the use of medications. In rare circumstances, such as when a brain tumor creates lesions, surgery may be possible to investigate.
The objective should be to manage rather than cure lesions and symptoms that persist following an adequate diagnosis and course of treatment.
When To See A Doctor
Patients experiencing the following issues should seek medical care right away:
- Head traumas that cause a piercing-like sensation in the skull
- Meningitis that produces a high temperature, stiff neck, and dizziness.
- The onset of a strong headache that comes abruptly or unexpectedly.
- Facial drooping, paralysis, slurred speech, and numbness in an extremity that appears suddenly or unexpectedly.
- Patients with a known cancer history who show sudden changes in personality or mental state.
- Seizures or loss of consciousness
- Excessive drowsiness, memory difficulties, disorientation, or difficulty to focus
- Alterations in appearance
A brain lesion may affect either a small portion of the brain or the whole brain. Depending on the lesion’s location, the underlying disease’s severity may vary from mild to life-threatening. Thus it needs to be immediately addressed.
This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered a substitute for professional medical advice. If you have concerns about brain lesions or any other medical condition, please see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment suggestions.